Takada, A. (2016). Introduction to the supplementary issue “Natural history of communication among the Central Kalahari San”. In Takada, A. (Ed.), Special Issue: Natural history of communication among the Central Kalahari San. African Study Monographs, Supplementary Issue, 52, 5-25. doi:10.14989/207697

The San have been the subject of extensive research since the early 20th century, if not longer. Researchers have represented them in various ways, including as a minority people of Southern Africa, as contemporary hunter-gatherers, as an underclass within the regional politico-economic system, and as an indigenous people spread over Southern Africa. In this volume, we will reconsider how the deep involvement of San peoples with their environment is related to the cultural dimensions of ethnicity and politico-economic situations. Takada (2015) proposed that in order for the bundles of conventions that characterize a group of people to be consistent for each individual, it is necessary that there be an interactional space that has a sustainable and continuous structure. The environment of the Central Kalahari certainly affords such a space for two neighboring San groups, the G|ui and G||ana. From this standpoint, the longitudinal studies of the G|ui and G||ana conducted by Jiro Tanaka and his colleagues over half a century merit particular attention. All the authors in this volume are members of the research project on the G|ui and G||ana initiated by Tanaka, apart from Thomas Widlok, who has worked intensively among the =Akhoe Hai||om, another San group. All authors have shared close academic exchanges.

Takada, A. (2016). Employing ecological knowledge during foraging activity: Perception of the landform among the G|ui and G||ana. In Takada, A. (Ed.), Special Issue: Natural history of communication among the Central Kalahari San. African Study Monographs, Supplementary Issue, 52, 147-170. doi:10.14989/207689

The present study focuses on the G|ui and G||ana, two neighbouring groups among the San people, who are indigenous to the central region of the Kalahari Desert. In a region of scant rainfall that varies greatly by location and year, the G|ui/G||ana developed a vast body of ecological knowledge that allowed them to acquire ample bush foods by moving frequently and flexibly within their immense living area, now encompassed by the Central Kalahari Game Reserve (CKGR). However, since the implementation of Botswana’s development program in the 1970s, which encouraged permanent settlement in villages, the lifestyle of the G|ui/G||ana has been altered. By 1997, most CKGR residents had moved to a new settlement founded outside the reserve. I examined how the G|ui/G||ana applied their environmental knowledge in this new geographical setting. Given the lack of knowledge of landmarks, the scarcity of traditional foods and the promotion of other subsistence activities, their foraging activities appeared to have declined. However, several G|ui/G||ana people remained eager to form foraging excursions. These hunters began accumulating knowledge of trees as landmarks, as they had in their previous living area. They also used the trail of Tswana merchants as a frame of reference to ascertain their relative location. The use of the trail is analogous to the G|ui/G||ana’s use of |qaa (a dry valley)-an important landform for wayfinding in their previous living area. The analysis of conversations recorded during foraging excursions indicates that the G|ui/G||ana activate their keen sense of the environment through their distinctive use of utterances, gestures, and other signs. This sense is necessary to use both |qaa and the Tswana merchant trail as frames of reference in the relatively flat terrain of the Kalahari. Moreover, this sense has motivated the G|ui/G||ana to transform a new geographical setting into their personal environment.

Senzaki, S., Masuda, T., Takada, A., and Okada, H. (2016). The communication of culturally dominant modes of attention from parents to children: A comparison of Canadian and Japanese parent child conversations during a joint scene description task. PLoS ONE 11(1): e0147199. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147199.

Previous findings have indicated that, when presented with visual information, North American undergraduate students selectively attend to focal objects, whereas East Asian undergraduate students are more sensitive to background information. However, little is known about how these differences are driven by culture and socialization processes. In this study, two experiments investigated how young children and their parents used culturally unique modes of attention (selective vs. context sensitive attention). We expected that children would slowly learn culturally unique modes of attention, and the experience of communicating with their parents would aid the development of such modes of attention. Study 1 tested children’s solitary performance by examining Canadian and Japanese children’s (4-6 vs. 7-9 years old) modes of attention during a scene description task, whereby children watched short animations by themselves and then described their observations. The results confirmed that children did not demonstrate significant cross-cultural differences in attention during the scene description task while working independently, although results did show rudimentary signs of culturally unique modes of attention in this task scenario by age 9. Study 2 examined parent?child (4-6 and 7-9 years old) dyads using the same task. The results indicated that parents communicated to their children differently across cultures, replicating attentional differences among undergraduate students in previous cross-cultural studies. Study 2 also demonstrated that children’s culturally unique description styles increased significantly with age. The descriptions made by the older group (7-9 years old) showed significant cross-cultural variances in attention, while descriptions among the younger group (4-6 years old) did not. The significance of parental roles in the development of culturally unique modes of attention is discussed in addition to other possible facilitators of this developmental process.

Takada, A. & Endo, T. (2015). Object transfer in request-accept sequence in Japanese caregiver-child interactions. Journal of Pragmatics, 82, 52-66.
DOI: 10.1016/j.pragma.2015.03.011 (refereed)

Requesting an object or information is a basic and ubiquitous activity in human interactions (Curl & Drew 2008), but the types of requests vary considerably across speech communities. This paper analyzes (1) Japanese caregivers’ distinctive use of linguistic forms and gestures to make requests to their children, and (2) the developmental transition of children’s expressions of acceptance in response to requests. Based on video data of Japanese caregiver-child (aged 0-5 years) interactions, we conducted an interaction analysis of conversations involving caregivers’ requests to their children. The results revealed that Japanese requests can be analyzed according to (1) linguistic forms such as utterances that take the form of the compound verbs V-tekureru (V + TE + give (to me)) and V-teagete (V + TE + give (to the third party)), and (2) use or non-use of gestural cues that imply appropriate responses to the requests. By formulating these request utterances, caregivers not only made reciprocal communication more effective (Bruner, 1983) but also set and modified the frame of their activity. The study also distinguishes between different types of child responses to requests and the data show different preferences for these types correlating with the ages of the children, indicating a developmental transition of the perception on rights and obligations surrounding object possession on the part of children.

Takada, A., Nyamongo, I., & Teshirogi, K. (eds.)(2014), Special Issue: Exploring African potentials: The dynamics of action, living strategy, and social order in Southern Africa. MILA – A Journal of the Institute of Anthropology, Gender and African Studies 12: iii-iv,1-75.

The breakdown of the Berlin Wall in 1989 was followed by dramatic economic and political changes in the Southern African region. The current political, economic, and cultural situation in the region undoubtedly differs considerably from that under the cold war and apartheid era. The global trend of neo-liberalization under the name of democratization and development has rapidly engulfed the Southern African region. Most Southern African countries were in no position to resist the wave of change, and are still in transition toward this end. The ideological battle seems to have passed. Neo-liberalization is arrogant with regard to inequality and unfairness. However, it presupposes the maintenance of the current political regime and is not concerned about the fundamental contradictions within the social structure. At the same time, newly developed technologies and strategies for processing information (see Teshirogi’s paper in this volume) have facilitated competition and integration across areas in which there were previously borders minimizing socio-economic activity. Changes have occurred on many levels of reality in multiple arenas. Linkages and pathways among these levels have been established or strengthened and the boundaries between neighbouring areas have become increasingly blurred. Consequently, each local community has to face difficult questions involving the level of social reality they can accommodate, to navigate through the changing social and natural environment. The aim of this volume was to deepen our understanding of these circumstances, through a consideration of what is referred to as the micro-macro link, explicating the social dynamics of choice of action, the formation or improvisation of living strategies, and the construction of social order from an area study approach that has been developed in ASAFAS.

Takada, A. (2015). Comment on “Children as a Reserve Labor Force”, by David F. Lancy. Current Anthropology, 56(4), 562-563.

In this excellent article, based on diverse ethnographic material, Lancy proposes what he calls the “Children as Chattel” hypothesis (i.e., the hypothesis that children can serve as a reserve labor force), which explains a number of phenomena that are not obviously related as well as some that are seemingly contradictory. This enables us to establish a link between divergent perspectives on human childhood, particularly those that are biological and cultural, and thereby makes an important contribution to the anthropology of childhood, a rapidly growing subfield of anthropology in which Lancy is one of the leading scholars. In my opinion, Lancy’s integrated approach has yet to receive the recognition that it merits. What follows is my account of the ongoing debate on these concepts, which may be of help in further elaborating Lancy’s hypothesis and promoting discussion.

Takada, A. (2014). Mutual coordination of behaviors in human-chimpanzee interactions: A case study in a laboratory setting. Revue de Primatologie, 5.

This study deepens our understanding of sociality established between chimpanzees and humans by analyzing the sequential organization of interactions in a laboratory setting. We conducted an interaction analysis of two short video clips that recorded a physical measurement event at the Great Ape Research Institute (GARI), Tamano, Japan. The results indicated that captive chimpanzees demonstrated how they perceived their situation, or what they would like, using various kinds of body movements and vocal sounds including hand gestures, scratching, whimpers, and screaming. Human trainers also enacted various meanings using body movements and verbal utterances. In particular, they encouraged chimpanzee?human interactions to include turn-taking, a distinctive style of human communication, by introducing various types of adjacency pairs. They also used other types of utterances, such as providing comments to clarify chimpanzee behaviors to smooth the flow of interactions when a chimpanzee was unlikely to provide a clear response. Analyses of the accumulated interactional histories revealed that most captive chimpanzees and humans in GARI appear to have formed mutually coordinated interaction patterns despite the differences in available semiotic resources between the two species. One exception was an infant chimpanzee raised by humans, who had not yet accumulated a sufficient interactional history to form stable interaction patterns with other chimpanzees. This caused serious problems for the infant and other chimpanzees, making it difficult for them to get along. Our results suggest that captive chimpanzees can adapt to live in accordance with the rhythm of humans in an environment largely constructed by humans, and that humans can coordinate their actions in accordance with the rhythm of chimpanzees. These findings are particularly important and suggest that analyses of human?chimpanzee interactions may help inform research about the foundations of societies built by humans, built by chimpanzees, and co-built by humans and chimpanzees.

高田 明 (2014). ナミビアにおける教育改革についての一考察: オバンボランドのクンをめぐる教育実践. アフリカ教育研究, 4, 19-34.


Takada, A. (2013). Generating morality in directive sequences: Distinctive strategies for developing communicative competence in Japanese caregiver-child interactions. Language & Communication, 33, 420-438.

In an attempt to reconsider communicative competence, this study focused on how young Japanese children and their caregivers mold interactions involving directive sequences, paying special attention to practices related to omoiyari (“empathy”), a distinctive value in Japanese culture. This analysis clarified several strategies used by caregivers and children to capture the attention of recipients during directive sequences. These strategies constitute distinctive phenotypes of communicative competence in Japanese caregiver-child interactions and are induced by the structural requirements of conversational settings, which rest primarily on universal elements. Analysis of these strategies disentangles the intriguing relationships among various codes of communicative conduct and illuminates how culturally shared morality, which is associated with the distinctive values of Japanese culture, is transmitted across generations.

Liszkowski, U., Brown, P., Callaghan, T., Takada, A., and de Vos, C. (forthcoming). A prelinguistic gestural universal of human communication. Cognitive Science.

Many accounts of human communication and language suppose the universal existence of cognitive processes dedicated to universal linguistic content (‘Universal Grammar’). Alternative cognitive accounts argue for language diversity and posit instead a language-independent, prelinguistic basis of human communication and language. The current study sought to provide evidence for the universality of a prelinguistic gestural basis of human communication across several different cultures. We used a standardized, semi-natural elicitation procedure in seven very different cultures around the world to test for the existence of preverbal pointing in infants and their caregivers. Results were that by 10-14 months of age infants and their caregivers pointed in all cultures in the same basic situation with similar frequencies and the same proto-typical morphology of the extended index-finger. Infants’ pointing was best predicted by age and caregiver pointing, but not by culture. Findings demonstrate the existence of a gestural, language-independent universal of human communication, which forms a culturally shared prelinguistic basis of diversified linguistic communication.

高田 明 (2011). 転身の物語り: サン研究における「家族」再訪. 文化人類学, 75(4), 551-573.
Takada, A. (2011). Narratives of changes in life: Revisiting the “family” in San studies. Japanese Journal of Cultural Anthropology, 75(4), 551-573. (in Japanese)

本論文では、クン・サンのライフストーリー分析に基づいて、サン研究における家族・親族概念の位置づけを再考する。「伝統派」と呼ばれる初期の研究は、サ ンの1グループであるジュホアンを現代の狩猟採集民と位置づけ、彼らは家族的な結合に基づいたシンプルな形で社会秩序を維持していると主張した。これに対 して、後の「見直し派」は、ジュホアンの親族間の関係を土地の権利や交易のネットワークを支える仕組みと位置づけた。ナミビア北中部のクン・サンは、ジュ ホアンと近縁だが、近隣の農牧民オバンボ等とより直接的な交渉を行ってきた。したがって、ジュホアンとの地域比較に適している。クンのライフストーリーを たどると、以下のような移動の例が見つかる。(1)クンの母親とオバンボの父親を持ち,オバンボとして育った男性が,父親の死後はクンとして生活してい る.(2)クンの少女がオバンボのもとで里親養育を受けたが、第3子の妊娠を機にクンのキャンプに戻った。(3)クンの男性が白人の農場でオバンボと働い ていたが、契約終了後はクンのキャンプに戻った。(4)クンの男性が南アからの解放運動に加わり、オバンボらと国外で活動していた。独立後はクンのキャン プに住んでいる。これらの人々は、クンのコミュニティの外では他者からの眼差しと呼応しながら自己の新たな側面をつくりだしていたが、その後、家族・親族 のつながりを頼ってクンのキャンプに帰還した。クンが多様な「他者」と複雑な関係を結ぶ中で、家族・親族のつながりという論理はクンのエスニック・グルー プの境界を再確認するための資源となっている。したがってクンが住む地域社会を理解するためには、伝統派とも見直し派とも異なり、「他者」との関係を包含 する理論枠組みから家族・親族をとらえる必要がある。

This paper re-examines the concept of family/kinship in San studies through analysis of life-stories among the !Xun San living in north-central Namibia. Early researchers, who are now called traditionalists, considered the San to be contemporary hunter-gatherers who provided a key to the reconstruction of primitive forms of human society. They asserted that the Ju|’hoan, the most famous group of San, maintained social order through simple social organizations based on family ties. In the late 1980s, however, San studies reached a significant turning point. A group of researchers, often called revisionists, argued that the San were merely groups of people who had been transformed into an underclass within a larger politico-economic system that included neighboring Bantu agropastoral communities. They considered that membership in a Ju|’hoan kinship group formed the basis of entitlement to land and provided exchange networks for beadwork and other symbolically valued materials.
In light of those research trends, study of the !Xun, a group of San living in north-central Namibia, provides a valuable perspective on San studies. Combining all of the following elements, comparison of the !Xun with the Ju|’hoan provides an unparalleled opportunity for intensive regional comparison [BARNARD 1992]. (1) The !Xun language is closely related both genetically and typologically to the Ju|’hoan language. (2) Although several cognate kinship terms are recognized between the !Xun and Ju|’hoan, their kinship and naming systems are also characterized by the following considerable differences: (a) rather than the well-known homonymous method [MARSHAL 1976], the normal generational method predominates in the use of !Xun kinship terms; (b) the !Xun have a surname system that is passed on by cross-descent, whereas the Ju|’hoan have no such system; and (c) most !Xun individuals hold multiple names, such as the !Xun name, surname, teknonym, nurse name, Hai||om (a San group) name, Owambo name, and Christian name. (3) The Ju|’hoan adopted a nomadic foraging lifestyle in their semi-arid environment, whereas the !Xun have learned a sedentary lifestyle in which members cultivate crops and work for the neighboring Owambo agropastoralists. (4) The Ju|’hoan have remained relatively distant from other peoples until recently, while the !Xun have had multidimensional contacts with powerful authorities, such as the Owambo, colonial governments, and missionaries, for centuries.
The following examples of life-stories enable us to examine the interplay between their ethnicity and familial/kin relationships with special reference to the applications of the surname system of !Xun (||’honi), the clan system of Owambo (epata), and the surname system of Hai||om (n!hao). (1) A male born of an Owambo father and a !Xun mother was raised as an Owambo. After his father passed away, however, he moved into a !Xun camp with his mother and siblings and lived as a !Xun, depending on Owambo people. (2) A male with Hai||om parents worked for the Owambo chief with his !Xun colleague for many years and then married a !Xun female. He then moved to a village founded by missionaries, where he was later chosen as the headman of the village’s !Xun camp. (3) A !Xun girl born in a !Xun camp was fostered by an Owambo family for more than 10 years. She gave birth to two children, the first with an Owambo classmate and the second with an Owambo ex-soldier. When she was pregnant with her third child, by the Owambo ex-soldier, she went back to the !Xun camp and decided to settle there.
The analysis of these examples elucidates relationships among the ethnic groups living in the area, societal functions of familial/kin ties, and the features of ethnic identity. (1) Under apartheid regimes, colonial governments tried to facilitate segregation by ethnic group. Contrary to that political intention, the !Xun in north-central Namibia developed cooperative relationships with neighboring peoples, such as the Owambo and Hai||om, and have been involved in a global politico-economic system. These cooperative relationships have been institutionalized in various regional cultural conventions. As a result, the !Xun ethnic boundary has been maintained despite drastic social changes. (2) The familial/kin relationships examined in this article provided a pathway across the boundaries of several ethnic groups and formed the foundation for constructions of lifeworlds in new settings. (3) Ethnicity is understood as a bundle of conventions from which people choose in particular interactive settings, according to the available resources and the relational histories among participants. The sustainability and continuity of the interactional environment nurture the consistency of interaction patterns, and help constitute ethnic identity.
To understand regional !Xun society, it is necessary to study their familial/kin relationships within a new theoretical framework. In contrast to traditionalist and revisionist analyses, this framework must treat !Xun relationships with others as an intrinsic component of efforts to explain the kinship system. International society has recently recognized the San as an indigenous people in southern Africa, and the San people have enjoyed increased political influence both within and outside their living area. In this context, it is now particularly important to reconstruct the historical relationships between the San and others, and to elucidate the process of identity formation among the San people through careful examination of various research materials. Hence, a reconsideration of the “family” in San studies leads us to reformulate our understanding of the social system in which the San play an important role.

Takada, A. (2010). Changes in Developmental Trends of Caregiver-Child Interactions among the San: Evidence from the !Xun of Northern Namibia. African Study Monographs, Supplementary Issue, 40, 155-177.

The San have been the subject of extensive research with respect to their foraging lifestyle that is assumed to date back to antiquity. I conducted field research among the !Xun San, who have had close associations with the neighboring agro-pastoralists, in order to deepen understanding in this area. As anticipated by previous studies on the influence of sedentarization, !Xun children were increasingly engaged in the care of their younger siblings or cousins. These studies also predicted early weaning from breastfeeding. Indeed, the transition from breastfeeding to solid baby food occurred primarily during the second year after birth, regardless of the mother’s next pregnancy, among the present-day !Xun. However, several findings did not meet the expectations raised by previous studies. Despite the difference in subsistence patterns, the trend toward parity among sedentary !Xun women was quite similar to that of nomadic Ju|’hoan women. The developmental transition involving touching and holding by the mother was similar among the Ju|’hoan and the !Xun. Gymnastic behavior preceding unaided walking of children persisted, even among the sedentary !Xun, mediated by differences in folk knowledge regarding such gymnastic behavior. Based on this evidence, I reconsidered the relationships among ecology and subsistence patterns, parental ideology, and patterns of caregiver-child interactions.

高田 明 (2009). 赤ちゃんのエスノグラフィ:乳児及び乳児ケアに関する民族誌的研究の新機軸. 心理学評論, 52(1), 140-151.

本論文の目的は,文化とは何かを再考するために,近年の「赤ちゃんのエスノグラフィ」を「人類進化における意義」「権利と承認の政治学」「コンテクストの 空間時間的脱構築」という3つの理論的関心のもとに整理・概観することである。ヒトの子育ての進化論的意義を論じる研究は,数百万年にわたるタイムスパン を視野に入れて,文化が成立する進化論的な基盤を明らかにしつつある。権利と承認の政治学の流れを組む研究は,公正な社会を希求して乳児の利益を代弁し, 時には研究者集団の枠を越えて社会に働きかけている。その大きな意義は,現代社会における「文化」概念の運用方法を改善することにある。養育者-乳児間相 互行為の研究は,養育者-乳児間の社会的リアリティを成り立たせている文化的なコンテクストを空間的・時間的に分解,分析する。民族誌的研究において文化 という概念を再興するためには,これら3つの視点を統合するような視野を協働構築していくことが望まれる。

Takada, A. (2008). Recapturing space: Production of inter-subjectivity among the Central Kalahari San. In A. Irving, A. Sen, & N. Rapport (Eds.), Journeys: The International Journal of Travel and Travel Writing, 9(2), Senses of spatial equilibrium and the journey: Confounded, discomposed, recomposed. New York: Berghahn Journals (pp.114-137).

The |Gui and ||Gana, two groups of San, have made extensive use of the central part of the Kalahari Desert, though they were recently resettled outside their previous living area. Since relocation, the rich ecological knowledge has not functioned well. Even in this situation, however, they still show a keen perception regarding the ground conditions, for avoiding obstacles as well as for assessing animal signs in the bushveld. This study explored how they deployed these kinds of knowledge using various resources in the environment. The results show that skills required to find a path between obstacles are closely associated with those used to perceive animal signs. Detailed analyses of their interactions clarify the process of achieving a mutual understanding that enables their accomplishments. Existence of others rather enhances the |Gui / ||Gana to formulate their knowledge explicitly. In these ways, the folk knowledge becomes known to the participants of interactions.

Takada, A. (2006). Explaining pathways in the Central Kalahari. In R. K. Hitchcock, K. Ikeya, M. Biesele, & R. B. Lee (Eds.), Senri Ethnological Studies, 70, Updating the San: Image and reality of an African people in the 21st century. Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology (pp.101-127).

The discussion of this paper is based on the analyses of face-to-face interactions between the author and the |Gui/||Gana during their daily activities, when their “detailed knowledge of specific trees,” and “understanding of woodlands and basins” were discussed. The objective of this analysis was to deduce the conditions under which the above knowledge can be put into practice. Two mutually related justifications exist to using this approach. First, it constitutes a key strategy of linguistic anthropology, in which everyday talk is used as the source of information to explicate the making of social reality, or in other words, an essential aspect of culture. Second, this approach can offer a basis for “adequate representation of other voices or points of view across cultural boundaries” (Marcus & Fischer, 1986: 2).

Takada, A. (2005). Early vocal communication and social institution: Appellation and infant verse addressing among the Central Kalahari San. Crossroads of Language, Interaction, and Culture, 6, 80-108.

Researchers have claimed that caregivers work, universally, on their children’s “zone of proximal development”. What is less emphasized, however, is that caregiver-infant interaction is always practiced in particular socio-cultural settings. This paper investigates caregiver-infant early vocal communication among the |Gui and ||Gana, who sometimes modify an infant’s name, when soothing the infant. Their practices exhibit patterns of phonation, repetition, and modification, all of which create rhythms. The caregiver thereby elicits the involvement of the infant in a dialogue. Moreover, some utterances addressing infants show similarities with =xano, which is characterized by the repetition of appellations and playful banter. This verse-like expression constitutes a transitional form, from appellation to verse. This study demonstrates that some features of |Gui/||Gana early vocal communication are incompatible with those of IDS reported to date. Furthermore, the study indicates that forms of early vocal communication are closely related to the social institutions that structure any given society.

高田 明 (2002). セントラル・カラハリ・サンにおける社会変容-人口動態,生業活動,乳幼児の体重の分析から.アフリカ研究,60, 85-103.

長年研究が進められてきたグイおよびガナにおいてその社会変化と乳幼児発達との関連を分析した.1970年代からの定住化,1997年の再移住を経てグイ やガナの人口密度は大きく増加し,出産間隔はやや縮まった.狩猟採集は減退し,代わって農耕や牧畜,賃金労働や配給食料への依存度が高まった.定住化への 対応を反映して経済格差は拡大しつつある.しかもそれはエスニシティと関連している.特にカラハリと密接な関係を持つガナでは家畜の飼養数が多く,住居も 大規模で費用のかかるものになりつつある.乳幼児の体重増加率の推移はこれらを反映している.再移住は生後1年半ほどの間は総じて乳幼児の成長を抑える方 向に働いた.その後はガナでは体重増加率が高まるのに対して,それ以外では逆の傾向がみられた.この要因には出産間隔の短縮により離乳が早期化したこと, ガナとそれ以外の人々の生活様式の違いが乳幼児の栄養摂取状況に影響していることが考えられる.これらから定住後はグイ,ガナ,カラハリの関係や帰属意識 が再編成されつつあること,定住化政策は政府の思惑とは逆にエスニック・アイデンティティを強く意識せざるを得ない方向に機能してきていることが示唆される.

高田 明 (2002). サンにおける養育行動とその発達的意義:ジムナスティック・授乳場面の特徴.発達心理学研究,13(1), 63-77.

サンにおけるジムナスティックと授乳は狩猟採集民の生活様式と関連づけて説明されてきた.これらが行われる日常的文脈,集団や時代による変化を検討するた め定住化や農耕牧畜民との交渉が進んでいるクンで調査を行った.先行研究から予想される仮説に反し,クンでは乳児に早くから頻繁にジムナスティックを行な う.ジムナスティックには乳児をあやしその運動発達を促進する機能がある.クンでジムナスティックが頻繁に行われるのは,それが日常場面ではしばしば「あ やし」として行われること,しかも人々がその機能を認識していることによると考えられる.またやはり予想される仮説に反し,クンでは頻繁で持続時間が短い 授乳が行われている.こうした授乳様式が生じる仕組みは授乳が行われる日常的場面の観察から理解できる.母親が授乳の時間や場所を定めない,授乳中に乳児 にあまり視線を向けない,ジグリングの絶対数が少ない,吸啜の休止期間にジムナスティックが行われる場合がある,ことが頻繁で持続時間が短い授乳様式の成 立に寄与している.これらは観察手法,養育行動の文化比較,その文化的な構造の分析の重要性を示唆する.

小嶋秀樹・高田 明 (2001). 社会的相互行為への発達的アプローチ:社会のなかで発達するロボットの可能性.人工知能学会誌,16(6), 812-818.

「発達は環境との相互行為(interaction)をとおして達成されていく」という考えは,そうした多様な研究の基盤を支えるパラダイムのひとつと なっている.本論文は,このような研究パラダイムから重要と考えられる先行研究をレビューをとおして,知能が社会的相互行為によって段階的に構成されるこ とを論じる.おもな主張は,生得的な動機づけをもった主体(乳児あるいはロボット)が,養育者との間で原初的な相互行為を形づくり,それをとおして物理的 環境だけでなく養育者を含めた社会的環境を探索していくというものである.第2節では,発達心理学が社会的相互行為をどのように捉えてきたのかを概観し, 第3節では,最近の「赤ちゃん研究」から社会的相互行為の成り立ちと社会的知能の構成について論じる.第4節では,社会的に発達するロボットの可能性につ いて考察し,第5節で,社会的相互行為にもとづく知能の構成モデルをまとめる.